A number of factors have contributed to this over the past 15 years.
These include:. The past 15 years has witnessed a near tripling of internal conflicts, with a sixfold increase in battle-related deaths;.
A rapid growth of these, including violent extremist groups in places like Mali, has dramatically increased the risks to civilians, challenged state security authorities, and complicated efforts to deliver implementable peace agreements; and. In DRC and South Sudan, state forces have often proven the greatest threat to civilians, causing more deaths than any single armed group.
In Mali and Central African Republic, weak or non-existent state capacity across much of the territory means that rebel groups are often able to operate with impunity. UN peacekeeping is far from perfect, and much can be done to improve the performance of missions on the ground.
It is unrealistic to suggest that a UN peacekeeping operation will deliver on its state-building mandate in countries like the Central African Republic anytime soon. And, as scholars have suggested , changes in these kinds of settings happens in fits and starts, with relapses, failings, and setbacks. There is no straight line from conflict to peace.
The UN, at best, may play a small role in facilitating national-level changes. But it can make a difference.
Recent studies have shown UN peacekeeping can help reduce overall conflict rates, protect hundreds of thousands of civilians from slaughter, warn the world of impending violence, and even gradually tip the scales in favour of peace. On the anniversary of UN peacekeeping, these accomplishments are worth celebrating and indeed worth tracking more systematically.
At the frontiers of the urban: thinking concepts and practices globally — London. In other instances, however, UN peacekeeping — and the response by the international community as a whole — have been challenged and found wanting, for instance in Somalia, Rwanda and the former Yugoslavia in the early s.
These setbacks provided important lessons for the international community when deciding how and when to deploy and support UN peacekeeping as a tool to restore and maintain international peace and security. As past experience shows, there are several factors that are essential for a successful peacekeeping operation.
It must:. A UN peacekeeping operation should only use force as a measure of last resort.
It should always be calibrated in a precise, proportional and appropriate manner, within the principle of the minimum force necessary to achieve the desired effect, while sustaining consent for the mission and its mandate. The use of force by a UN peacekeeping operation always has political implications and can often give rise to unforeseen circumstances.
Judgments concerning its use need to be made at the appropriate level within a mission, based on a combination of factors including mission capability; public perceptions; humanitarian impact; force protection; safety and security of personnel; and, most importantly, the effect that such action will have on national and local consent for the mission.
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Welcome to the United Nations Toggle navigation Language:. There are three basic principles that continue to set UN peacekeeping operations apart as a tool for maintaining international peace and security. These three principles are inter-related and mutually reinforcing: Consent of the parties Impartiality Non-use of force except in self-defence and defence of the mandate 1.